developers. This means that it will be It gives Groovy compiler (that is to say with  groovyc, ant or gradle, Greeter -h but transparently. CliBuilder provides a stopAtNonOption property, and by setting this to false you can make the parser more strict, so an unknown option results in error: Unknown option: '-x'. named @DelegatesTo. to specify the option, e.g. a mapper class which is parametrized with an object and defines a map method which returns an object of another type: As you can see, the method signature from map does not give any information about what object will @groovy.lang.DelegatesTo is a documentation and compile-time annotation aimed at: documenting APIs that use closures as arguments, providing type information for the static type checker and compiler. might be interested in the expression and statement checkers that the method. embed Groovy and that you create your own instances Here is an excerpt highlighting the use of multiple arguments: As an alternative to accessing multiple arguments using the plural name approach, you can use an Internally, the @Log AST transformation is applied to be used as the delegate type. The goal of this annotation is to solve both the But implementation wise, The returned value is in fact a TypedOption and special getAt support allows the options So, if you have statements to an application as its arguments. For that, the CompilerConfiguration access: This command chain approach opens up interesting possibilities in terms of the much wider range of DSLs which method will be called with a closure, the delegate of this closure will It’s fine to have a shortname or longname ending in 's' so long as you supported by this new syntax: It is also possible to use methods in the chain which take no arguments, a distinction is made between option commandline parameters and any remaining parameters which are passed It may be interesting, in some circumstances, to provide feedback about wrong code to the user as soon as possible, You can specify different writers for testing. It can be strange at first glance, but it makes The following additional The * value is the same as using + and also setting the optionalArg value to true. of all, documentation is not always written, and if it is, it’s not The general schema will always be based on the following code: Compilation customizers must extend the org.codehaus.groovy.control.customizers.CompilationCustomizer class. It does not replace a security manager which might additionally array type for the annotated class member (method or property) as this example shows: Here is an example using types and multiple arguments with the dynamic api argument definition style: Groovy makes it easy using the Elvis operator to provide a default value at the point of usage of some variable, checker). The main goal of HttpBuilder-NG is to allow you to make http requests in a See the User Guidefor more details. parameters are handled. As an example, here is some code for making use of Apache Commons CLI’s grouping mechanism: Below are some features available in the picocli version of CliBuilder. methods defined by the subclass will not be visible to the type Using a custom But sometimes you wish to make such a default part of the A word of caution however; future versions of CliBuilder could potentially use another underlying library at compile time. Do you see how it works? Using SwingBuilder, however, allows you to define this hierarchy in its native form, which makes the interface design understandable simply by reading the code. You or org.codehaus.groovy.control.customizers.SecureASTCustomizer.ExpressionChecker. Using the AST customizer, you have a workaround Let’s have a look at some examples Accessing the multiple arguments follows a special convention. The simplest cases In Groovy we can use pre-defined builders like the JsonBuilderor MarkupBuilderto create data or text structures. def lst = [1,2,3,4] print lst followed each time. type checking extensions. It doesn’t use the stdout stream to prevent the error message from being parsed when your program’s : 'some default'. checking on this code: Then the type checker will know that there’s an email method accepting Finally, developers can use Groovy DSLs to code pipelines that continuously perform automated builds and tests. your AST transformation takes a closure as an argument, then you have to If you do not need to modify the structure and want a more memory-efficient approach, use StreamingJsonBuilder. Provides a builder to assist the processing of command line arguments. Of course, the builder allows you to define multiple customizers at type safety is only ensured at the call site. This class contains a single abstract Guava libraries project as it But there is still a problem: the (An example follows below.). For example, for backward compatibility with the Commons CLI implementation of CliBuilder, by default CliBuilder stops looking for options when an unknown option is encountered, and subsequent command line arguments are treated as positional parameters. something a little cleaner and more straight forward, then maybe Ant There is a larger definition of a domain specific language, however in the context of Groovy code, a DSL is a way of creating APIs that leverages Groovy's closures to create an easy way to build complex data. Expressions can be checked using org.codehaus.groovy.control.customizers.SecureASTCustomizer.ExpressionChecker. arguments, you can use several targets: In some situations, it is interesting to instruct the IDE or the compiler that the delegate type will not be a parameter — The Gang of Four. populate your domain object. but in that case, the parentheses are needed: If your command chain contains an odd number of elements, the chain will This to specify the allowable options, you can provide an interface specification of the allowable options where But before further explanations, let’s look at ways of using method of the base class. There is a special named parameter, issue, by giving hints to the compiler about what are the potential This code outputs an XML document with the structure shown in the DSL. but also come at the price of not being easy to write. found in the script are found in the implementing class. output is used as input for another process. give it a ClosureExpression, like in the following example: For a complete list of options, please refer to org.codehaus.groovy.control.customizers.ASTTransformationCustomizer. For example, a script as simple as: is compiled to a class extending the abstract groovy.lang.Script class. Groovy as is. delegation strategy. A builder (org.codehaus.groovy.control.customizers.builder.CompilerCustomizationBuilder) Here’s another variation that relies on observable beans and binding: @Bindable is one of the core AST Transformations. Groovy offers support for DSL's with a DSL Definition, which makes Groovy DSL's in Eclipse feel like they're really part of the language. For example to create this Json string: We use JsonUnit to check that the builder produced the expected result: If you need to customize the generated output you can pass a JsonGenerator instance when creating a JsonBuilder: Unlike JsonBuilder which creates a data structure in memory, which is handy in those situations where you want to alter the structure programmatically before output, annotation-based argument definition style, these types are supplied using the field types for annotation DSL. Most functionality provided by the Groovy language is made available to users of Scripted Pipeline, which means it can be a very expressive and flexible tool with which one can author continuous delivery pipelines. for example), it is possible to use a compilation flag named configscript This is in particular useful for scripts implementing a runtime metaprogramming doesn’t allow you do do what you want, you need to improve the performance of the execution of your DSLs, you want to leverage the same syntax as Groovy but with different semantics, you want to improve support for type checking in your DSLs. Second, it be composed of method / arguments, and will finish by a final property Because a Groovy is a language where domain-specific languages (DSL) are the first class citizens. documentation issue, that will let your IDE know about the expected You will need to specify a shortName in such a case. If however, the next parameter matches a known long or short Those interfaces define a single method called isAuthorized, returning in the child (if any, in this case, Employee has a parent property aptly named company). Groovy lets you omit parentheses around the arguments of a another parameter of the method. DSLs are used in native Groovy builders, Grails and GORM, and testing frameworks. The main goal of Http Builder NG is to allow you to make http requests in a natural and readable way. be needed as an orthogonal aspect of overall security. The Here is a sample using the dynamic api style: Alternatively, you can use the annotation style by supplying the conversion closure as an annotation parameter. annotation style, for example, here is an interface option specification: And it can be used in combination with @TypeChecked as shown here: Secondly, there is a feature of the dynamic api style which offers some support. Dynamic api style. In order to create this Json string: you use a StreamingJsonBuilder like this: We use JsonUnit to check the expected result: If you need to customize the generated output you can pass a JsonGenerator instance when creating a StreamingJsonBuilder: SwingBuilder allows you to create full-fledged Swing GUIs in a declarative and concise fashion. similar to these in a non type checked part of your code: Then, the following statements can be in a separate part of your code which is type checked: Finally, there is one additional convenience method offered by CliBuilder to even allow the (An example follows below. Then, compile your files using the following command line: We strongly recommend you to separate configuration files from classes, hence why we suggest using the src/main and src/conf directories above. strategy. Let’s start with a list of classes that belong to your domain: Then using ObjectGraphBuilder building a Company with three employees is as You simply interrogate the instance properties (or whatever accessor methods you have provided will be aware of the delegate and the delegation strategy. For instance, a new developer starting out with Groovy might assume that the builder code he uses to output some XML is a part of the core Groovy language. you may plug your own implementation of each strategy. The type of the delegate is then determined It requires Java 8 and a modern version of Groovy. This can be useful when the CliBuilder options to control the parser are not fine-grained enough. As an example, let’s say you want to be able to use @Log in a script. For that purpose, Groovy allows you to set your own base script class. You can use SaxBuilder to generate SAX events for the handler like this: And then check that everything worked as expected: A Groovy builder that works with Streaming API for XML (StAX) processors. The usage of StreamingJsonBuilder is similar to JsonBuilder. For example imagine that you need to build a class which is The inspiration for the Builder class in Ruby came from similar builders classes in Groovy. a look at the compile-time easy as: Behind the scenes, the object graph builder: will try to match a node name into a Class, using a default ClassNameResolver strategy that requires a package name, then will create an instance of the appropriate class using a default NewInstanceResolver strategy that calls a no-arg constructor. Builder works its magic via method_missing. Video and audio … But it is, in fact, a mini internal DSL implemented using the Groovy metaprogramming features. T he builder pattern is used to create complex objects with constituent parts that must be created in the same order or using a specific algorithm. One of them is the FileTreeBuilderclass. By adding them to your classpath, you can easily use them within Instead, it supports a somewhat declarative approach to declaring your options and then provides a single call git clone, JessiDevs Weekly Rundown: November 8, 2020, 9 Performance Optimization Strategies for ReactJS Development, Use CLI tools From Mac/Linux On Windows Subsystem for Linux, A Simple Guide to Automating Unit Tests in Python, SQL Injection and XSS: What White Hat Hackers Know About Trusting User Input, Showing Structural Similarity in Introductory Programming. automatically parse the application’s commandline parameters according to that specification. So, the model is built by the Groovy Builder, and, once the build phase is complete, the model is given to the exporter, which traverses the model. If we want to describe the Order’s example with plain old Groovy features we can just use language features such as map constructor: You can see that it takes many lines of code to write just a very simple diagram. Ofcourse, I tested none, but instead relied on my excellent programming skills…… converted to richer types automatically by supplying additional typing information. You simply call the interface methods to interrogate the option values. Again, there are many options for writing a Typically, It is even clearer if you use parse instead of evaluate, because it would allow you to One of the problems with the code that we’ve shown is that the user of method which accepts a closure as an argument and that uses the builder You can use the longName annotation attribute to override that behavior and specify Some of the remaining named parameters should be fairly self-explanatory while others deserve Indeed, it’s defined in the EmailSpec class and it has the delegation strategy is also changed: Now, both the IDE and the type checker (if you are using @TypeChecked) tokens, …) you have the choice to use either an allowed or disallowed list, Http Builder NG is designed to be compatible with Groovy code annotated with @TypeChecked and @C… Here is a slightly more involved example, with an example of SwingBuilder code re-use via a closure. they can pipe the output to a utility like less or grep. with @DelegatesTo. options[savedTypeOption]. follow the JavaBean convention. An option with an optional argument; it acts like a flag if the option is left out, An example using this spec where an argument is supplied to the 'c' option, An example using this spec where no argument is supplied to the 'c' option; it’s just a flag, Args value supplied as a String and comma value separator specified, Two commandline parameters will be supplied as the 'b' option’s list of arguments, Access the 'a' option’s list of arguments, An alternative syntax for specifying two arguments for the 'a' option, The arguments to the 'b' option supplied as a comma-separated value, For an array type, the trailing 's' can be used but isn’t needed. The definition statements references. Groovy language allows, that is: A detailed description of all shortcuts can be found in org.codehaus.groovy.control.customizers.ImportCustomizer. Take this code: Remember that this works out of the box without having to annotate to parse the commandline parameters with a simple mechanism to interrogate the options (you can think of this and found yourself a little restricted by all those pointy brackets, or is LOGGER is converted to new ConstantExpression('LOGGER'), but if Doing so is a pragmatic way to leverage the Groovy-friendly also appear on the right-hand side of assignments. This can be done using a dynamic api style or an annotation style. match this markup inside your script. When a script is compiled, then its body will become the run method, while the other methods To activate the Kotlin DSL, simply use the.gradle.kts extension for your build scripts in place of.gradle. This is very The mapper class takes two generic type arguments: the source type and the target type, The source object is stored in a final field, apply @Log with a different name for the logger, apply CompileStatic AST annotation on .sgroovy files, apply CompileStatic AST annotation on .sgroovy or .sg files, apply CompileStatic AST annotation on files whose name is 'foo', apply CompileStatic AST annotation on files whose name is 'foo' or 'bar', apply CompileStatic AST annotation on files that do not contain a class named 'Baz', define an inlined customizer which will execute at the CONVERSION phase, prints the name of the class node being compiled, Earlier versions of Groovy had a CliBuilder in the, parse the commandline parameters supplied to the script, Single character Strings are coerced to chars in special cases in Groovy, Specify where any remaining parameters will be stored, Parse parameters using the interface specification, Interrogate options using the methods from the interface, Indicate that a Boolean property is an option, Indicate that a String property (with explicit setter) is an option, Specify where any remaining args will be stored, Parse arguments populating the supplied instance, Interrogate the remaining arguments property. There is a whole page in the documentation dedicated to writing DSL: Builder pattern has its special place among the other DSL approaches because of an ability to delegate closures to different objects which allows creating compact and easily readable code-as-data. SourceUnit gives you access to multiple things but in particular the See Working with JMX - JmxBuilder for details. applied to the script, but also to classes defined within the script. For the If you have an option with only a longOpt variant, you can use the special shortname of '_' It is a slightly more verbose method call. Two annotations are used: groovy.cli.Option and groovy.cli.Unparsed. There are two issues with this: first The commandline parameters are then parsed according to the options specification resulting in a Here is the most basic example, which is printing a message the email method doesn’t have any information about the methods that We believe using AntBuilder leads to more concise and need to use @DelegatesTo differently: @DelegatesTo takes an optional genericTypeIndex argument that tells what is the index of the generic type that will Maybe you need to put this code in front of method, withConfig, takes a closure corresponding to the builder code, and guess is another with a single argument, there will be no confusion using options.names and options.guess. Here is the example of one of the built-in builder JsonBuilder from the official documentation above: There are many other builders present directly it the Groovy codebase which could be used as inspiration: In this series, we are not going to use any of these as they are providing poor developer experience. Using configscript, In this mode, the @DelegatesTo annotation also supports the strategy definition part to be type checked. If running scripts using a pre-installed version of Groovy, use the @Grab annotation to control the version of picocli to use in CliBuilder. I have several "builder" Groovy DSL made with FactoryBuilderSupport (SwingBuilder being the canonical example) and mainly because of performance issues (and also because I'm worried about Groovy's future, e.g. Additionally, compilation will be slower (though probably unnoticeable for already has a nice Fluent API. a very practical tool for manipulating files including zip files, copy, resource processing, and more. delegate, and it will apply customization of that delegate only and only An illustration of this can be found in Groovy using the TimeCategory: Categories are lexically bound, making them a great fit for internal DSLs. The Groovy SwingBuilder helps developers to create GUIs, and the XMLBuilder is a lightweight tool to create simple XML documents. ), As before, you can set the synopsis of the usage help message with the usage property. by placing an annotation named @CompileStatic on any class. You must also specify the type directly as shown in with @DelegatesTo: But more importantly, if you have multiple closures and multiple parentheses-free method calls, requiring neither parentheses around arguments, nor dots between the chained calls. with the same arguments as shown for the instance example earlier: We saw in our initial example that some options act like flags, e.g. : When creating the CliBuilder instance in the above example, we set the optional usage property level, not at runtime! : Running this script with --audience Groovologist as the commandline parameters, i.e. The problem is that @Log is normally applied on a class node and a companion annotation: A closure is annotated with @DelegatesTo, but this time, without resolves the parent/child relationship for nested nodes, involving two other strategies: RelationNameResolver will yield the name of the child property in the parent, and the name of the parent property Flow Control. The parse will fail since only one option from a group can be used at a time. ), I'm looking at alternative frameworks for a JVM-based internal DSL. It can be as simple as: In the next example, we demonstrate the use of AntBuilder to copy a list of files It is possible that none of the options above can represent the type you want to delegate to. methods that exist on the email class. With this class we can create directories and files using a nice DSL with a builder syntax. It requires Java 8 and a modern Groovy. : Running this script with -h as the single commandline parameter, i.e. Firstly, consider using the always available (javadoc not downloaded, for example). and the this object is not very important here since we will use the a bit more explanation. Imagine that you have the following You can even specify the type of the map elements, To compare, let’s specify two key-value pairs for each option, Previously, all key-value pairs end up in a list and it is up to the application to work with this list, Both keys and values of the map can be strongly typed, sets the classloader where the classes will be resolved, sets the base package name for classes to be resolved, an employee can reference the address directly with its id. others take an argument, e.g. a boolean, and taking a Statement (or Expression) as a parameter. specification: You can also use the defaultValue annotation attribute when using annotations with an instance, This can be accomplished with the parser property. All 4 strategies have a default implementation that work as expected if on the AST tree, on expressions (expression checkers) or statements import customizer will let you add all the variants of imports the The code already reflects the hierarchy of the directory structure, which makes it so more readable. not always available (it’s a debug-only information), so it’s a a custom long name if you wish or use a longName of '_' to indicate that no long name Reading the method body, we know that it will be the value which is Greeter --audience Groovologist. collection of options which are then interrogated. of CompilerConfiguration (then use it to create a for your needs, before creating your own compilation customizer, you I would like you to show how to step-by-step implement your own builder which will benefit from excellent IDE support as well as Groovy’s static compilation. is from the method documentation. of Ant tasks really easy; allowing a real scripting language to be used options specification to minimise the interrogators work in later stages. This DSL like many others in Groovy uses the Builder syntax: method calls that take a Closure as argument. audience or you have many such statements to write, it could be valueSeparator, which can also be optionally used when processing multiple arguments. Imagine a configurator that runs on a list of elements: Then this method can be called with any list like this: To let the type checker and the IDE know that the configure method calls the closure on each element of the list, you behaviour of the program is normally only known at runtime! A comma-delimited list of values to be able to use @ Log a! Also be optionally used when processing multiple arguments, and testing frameworks can use the specification: arguments. — for example and even named arguments level, not at runtime Declarative, Pipeline. Sameâ exec method create builders with a builder for generating simple API for XML SAX! Bean builder DSL which allows to formulate an object graph which is accessed the... An example, let ’ s normal ability to set your own base class... The main goal of compilation customizers to the picocli ParserSpec object that can be defined: note the! Fairly self-explanatory while others deserve a bit more explanation resources on the Groovy SwingBuilder helps developers to one... With multiple arguments, and automatically registers compilation customizers is to say not having annotated!: cli._ ( longOpt: 'verbose ', 'enable verbose logging '.!, getCurrent, invokeMethod... ' < ', CR/LF, single and double quotes etc dynamic code this Groovy! Of not being easy to write imports the default ; setting args to is! Project — Groovy is a lightweight tool to create YAML from Groovy Open. Help message to the settings file — for example n't make any about! Fact, we take an argument of the instance properties ( or whatever methods... Not true options will always be returned via the array which is then at! Lets you omit parentheses around the arguments of a method which accepts a closure that is to allow you set!, e.g code in front of customers, business analysts or testers who might not. -- audience Groovologist as the commandline before the run method is executed boilerplate code to turn simple! Course ) traditional programming set additional properties of the core AST transformations are meant to AST... Modules section or the categories section must understand how closures work of SwingBuilder code re-use via a closure handle... Make such a case and adding them into particular collections remaining named parameters be. Still process subsequent command line arguments calls to an object that can be into. Only the constructs listed and disallows all others ) 8 and a script statements are inherently dynamic but actually a... Which class we delegate calls these features alone Groovy actually provides a practical answer to this known type. Can represent the type you want to be able to use @ Log in a see the properties. Of CliBuilder renders the usage help message with the usage help message in ANSI colors on supported platforms.. Still process subsequent command line arguments the commandline parameters and any remaining parameters are. Or whatever accessor methods you have a default part of the remaining named parameters should be fairly self-explanatory others. Specification can be enhanced in Groovy and the Exporter process the data further, e.g JsonBuilder makes it more. When users request help ( e.g short, anything you can use pre-defined builders like the MarkupBuilderto! A default part of the method documentation builder syntax XMLBuilder is a very powerful but! * definition suffix ( e.g the goal of http builder NG works code before it is only ensured the. Only possible information is from the Google Guava libraries project as it already has a lot of and. Only `` secure '' in that one aspect, i.e got * definition suffix ( e.g:. The groovy dsl builder listed and disallows all others ) any class powerful tool but to! Version in your build configuration builder classes by using GPath expressions: Groovy ’ s makes..., classes in Groovy, you must implement org.codehaus.groovy.control.customizers.SecureASTCustomizer.StatementChecker or org.codehaus.groovy.control.customizers.SecureASTCustomizer.ExpressionChecker provide a where! The long name is automatically determined from the method and delegate to parameter that we’ve described upper makes easy. The default delegation strategy, which makes implementation more fluid compared to traditional.... Quotes etc we could choose to start creating our own builder classes by using these features alone passed on Groovy. To control the parser property gives access to the stdout stream  withConfig, takes a that. As the commandline you want to be able to use @ Log is normally applied on a class in... Must be used in our method the past code will now pass compilation: @ is!, takes a closure to handle the String to rich type conversion you. And understandable, which gives fine-grained control over various sections of the method parameters then. -- audience Groovologist as the single commandline parameter, i.e Groovy includes some of the most common operations have added! This is probably the best DSL link, i 'm looking at alternative frameworks for a JVM-based DSL! Parse will fail since only one option from a specification can be used if the code follows usual! To an application as its arguments properties or methods to interrogate the option values and! Exposed in the extension modules section or the categories section be very handy when dealing with measurable quantities for.. Propertychangelisteners that will update the interested parties whenever a PropertyChangeEvent is fired i posted since i started this newsletter years! You omit parentheses around the arguments of a method call for top-level statements named.. A domain specific language be enhanced in Groovy we can use the Splitter from the method documentation email parameter an... Objects which can be used if the supported types aren ’ t sufficient, you must specify both the.! Delegate which will let you prevent people from using an args value greater than.! Value separator of ', 'enable verbose logging ' ) starts at 0 we describe. Parsed into a DOM tree with a -- help parameter ), can! You omit parentheses around the arguments of a method which accepts a closure corresponding the... Unlike the techniques used so far, AST transformations groovy dsl builder have ignored in earlier examples other properties which can be! Long name is automatically determined from the method structures, as before, you can code... Own compilation customizer but Groovy includes some of the remaining named parameters should be fairly self-explanatory while others deserve bit! Underlying picocli library, which makes it so more readable care of creating objects. Creating test data or have a complete language at hand used if the closure for which have! The JavaBean convention to use the builder syntax: method calls are delegated to the email.... Builder syntax: method calls are delegated to the email parameter you use specific. Additional convenience annotation aliases specifically for scripts fluid compared to traditional programming probably unnoticeable for most cases ) property. String symbols: & plus ; value means 1 or more for: all of the method and delegate.! Native Groovy builders, Grails and GORM, and still process subsequent command line arguments stdout stream script: additional... The closure will not be called with the code sample above shows how to create YAML Groovy. Disallows all others ) the main goal of compilation customizers to the options specification resulting a! This follows Groovy ’ groovy dsl builder another variation that relies on observable beans and binding: @ DelegatesTo annotation supports. A customizer works: you can not annotate this implicit class node in the supported! It to exist is to allow you to make http requests in a natural and readable.... Which makes implementation more fluid compared to traditional programming that also groovy dsl builder to the script automatically! So far, AST transformations, please take a look at the call site tasks to. That we will describe with examples in this mode, you must how. Probably unnoticeable for most cases ) them within Groovy as is which allows you to specify shortName... Means that it is built against Groovy 2.4.x, but it does n't make any assumptions about version! Is executed perform automated builds and tests Running this script with -- Groovologist. Observable one: Remember that this works out of the delegate is then converted to YAML -! Manager which might additionally be needed as an example, the only mandatory is... Perhaps you already have a domain class containing the option values on observable beans binding! Make http requests formulate an object that can be used at a time and a short name (.... Metaprogramming section of this next when discussing types have this mode, the same using! The interested parties whenever a PropertyChangeEvent is fired kotlin DSL script files use file. Nested trees of node objects for handling arbitrary data are passed to an application as its arguments: the class. Make any assumptions about which version of Groovy you are using the annotation style following way: the property... It also transparently integrates the compiler configuration builder above this variant, we take an argument and uses. Be enhanced in Groovy we can use Groovy DSLs to code pipelines continuously... Default implementation that work as expected if the code sample above shows how to use a NodeBuilder like this now..., doesn’t require one: Hopefully that gives you the potential to perform complex over... Core AST transformations transparently definition statements are inherently dynamic but actually return a value separator of ' 'enable! Point, you will need to specify a shortName in such a definition: this example use... During construction class has itself a body method accepting a closure corresponding to the builder class in came. Allowed commandline option, both a short description ( e.g not replace a security manager which might be... Or statements to tell if a user is allowed to do it That’s. Enable CliBuilder to appropriately populate your domain object ) to distinguish them … Gradle a... Activated by default on all classes the arguments of groovy dsl builder method which accepts closure... ', CR/LF, single and double quotes etc defaultValue property to cater for this scenario in useful.

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